Laboratory Safety Manual - Chapter 07: Highly Toxic Chemicals and Select Carcinogens

Title

Laboratory Safety Manual - Chapter 07: Highly Toxic Chemicals and Select Carcinogens

Purpose

This chapter supplements previous chapters by giving specific extra precautions, postings, training, and protective equipment necessary when working with substances that are highly toxic and/or select carcinogens. The appendices at the end of the chapter are a thorough (but not exhaustive) list of substances that might be present in your lab that are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Laboratory Safety Plans
  3. Facility Requirements
  4. Protective Clothing
  5. Use of Primary Containment Equipment
  6. Use and Decontamination of Analytical Instrumentation
  7. Storage, Inventory and Identification
  8. Working Quantities
  9. Laboratory Transport
  10. Protection of Vacuum Lines
  11. Packaging and Shipping
  12. Decontamination
  13. Disposal
  14. Animal Experimentation
  15. Appendix 7-A: Highly Toxic Chemicals List
  16. Appendix 7-B: Select Carcinogens List

I. Introduction

Work with highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens require special containment practices in addition to those described in Chapter 6 for toxic chemicals. Highly toxic compounds have the ability to cause harmful effects, which can be local or systemic, after a single exposure. Among the most useful parameters for assessing the risk of acute toxicity of a chemical are its LD50 and LC50 values, the mean lethal dose or lethal concentration causing death in experimental animals. Per the Health Hazards Definitions of the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, a substance is highly toxic if:

  • the oral LD50 for albino rats is less than 50 mg/kg or
  • the topical LD50 for albino rabbits is less than 200 mg/kg or
  • the LC50 in albino rats is less than 200 ppm for one hour.

Examples of highly toxic substances include hydrogen cyanide, osmium tetroxide, phosgene, sodium azide, and tetrodotoxin. For a thorough (but not exhaustive) list of highly toxic substances, refer to Appendix 7-A.

A select carcinogen is a chemical agent that causes a malignant disease or statistically increases the risk of cancer, whether by initiation or promotion. Appendix 7-B lists select carcinogens that are:

  1. listed as a known or reasonably anticipated human carcinogen in the biennial Report on Carcinogens published by the National Toxicology Program
  2. listed as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), or possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
  3. regulated by OSHA as a carcinogen

Some of these compounds are common materials used in many laboratories, such as acrylamide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, hydrazine, and thiourea. More than two-thousand substances exhibit some evidence for carcinogenicity. Many of these also warrant careful planning and control procedures.

II. Laboratory Safety Plans

Laboratories working with highly toxic chemicals and/or select carcinogens must include standard operating procedures in the Laboratory Safety Plan (LSP) describing the hazards of the compounds, safety precautions and emergency procedures in the event of a spill. Refer to Chapter 2 for instructions on completing an LSP. In addition to the safety practices described for use of toxic materials, several other special safety precautions are necessary for highly toxic chemicals and select carcinogens.

III. Facility Requirements

Establish a “designated area,” with access restricted to personnel who are aware of the hazards of the substances in use and the necessary precautions. A foot or elbow operated handwashing facility and an eyewash facility must be available within the work area. A shower facility, other than emergency drench showers, must be located in the building.

Exhaust ventilation systems are designed to maintain an inflow of air from the corridor into the work area. The exhaust air from the work area must discharge directly to the outdoors, and clear of occupied buildings and air intakes. Exhaust air from the work area must not recirculate. The exhaust air from glove boxes must filter through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and charcoal filters. EHS shall determine the need for and type of treatment for other primary containment equipment. Exhaust air treatment systems that remove toxic chemicals from the exhaust air by collection mechanism such as filtration or absorption must operate in a manner that permits maintenance, to avoid direct contact with the collection medium. All exhaust air from primary containment equipment must discharge directly to the outdoors and disperse clear of occupied buildings and intakes. Exhaust systems for highly toxic substances must contain engineered fail-safe mechanisms to prevent loss of containment due to utility outages.

The EHS Director (or designee) must approve the purchase and installation of any non ducted hoods. EHS will not approve non-ducted hoods for use with volatile chemicals. Approval will be granted only in exceptional cases, and only when particulate handling (e.g., weighing solids) is its sole use.

IV. Protective Clothing

Refer to Chapter 5: Protective Clothing and Equipment

Wear a full-fastened laboratory coat or a disposable jump suit in any area where highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens are in use. The Principal Investigator is to provide clean clothing weekly and you cannot wear it outside of the work area. Following an obvious exposure, decontaminate or dispose immediately all clothing contaminated by highly toxic chemicals. Do not send contaminated clothing to the laundry until decontaminated. Wear appropriate gloves (Appendix 5-B) when handling. Double gloving is recommended. Discard disposable gloves after each use and immediately after known contact with a highly toxic chemical or select carcinogen.

V. Use of Primary Containment Equipment

Procedures involving volatile chemicals, and those involving solid or liquid chemicals that may result in the generation of aerosols, must occur in a laboratory hood, glove box, or other suitable containment equipment. Examples of aerosol-producing procedures include: opening of closed vessels; transfer operations; weighing; preparing feed mixtures; and the application, injection or intubation of a chemical into experimental animals. Class II, type B biological safety cabinets are suitable for the conduct of tissue culture and other biological procedures involving highly toxic chemicals, reproductive toxins, and select carcinogens. The Principal Investigator is to obtain guidance from EHS on the selection and use of Class II biological safety cabinets. For more information on biological safety cabinets, refer to Chapter 16: Biological Safety Cabinets. Primary containment equipment used for chemical carcinogens must display a label bearing the legend: CAUTION – HIGHLY TOXIC CHEMICAL (OR SELECT CARCINOGEN), Authorized Personnel Only. The examples below in Figure 7.1, Figure 7.2, and Figure 7.3 are available on the EHS Safety Labels webpage for printing.

Figure 7.1a Figure 7.1b

Figure 7.1 - Examples of postings for storage areas or primary containment equipment where highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens are present.

A clean bench (Chapter 16, Section III) is a laminar flow cabinet that provides a flow of filtered air over the work service and offers product protection, not personnel protection. Do not use highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens in them. These are posted by the lab or EHS with the information in Figure 7.2.

Figure 7.2













Figure 7.2 - Example posting for clean benches.

VI. Use and Decontamination of Analytical Instrumentation

Analytical instruments, when used with highly toxic chemicals and select carcinogens, must be located entirely within a laboratory hood. When this is impossible, capture the vapors or aerosols produced by these instruments through local exhaust ventilation at the site of their production. When you remove a sample from the analytical instrument, place it in a tightly stoppered sample tube, or otherwise safeguarded from contaminating the laboratory. Do not use contaminated analytical equipment until it has been completely decontaminated. The following are some decontamination guidelines. Contact EHS if you have additional questions about equipment decontamination.

Safely remove, drain, or discharge chemicals from the equipment, collecting the chemicals for re-use or hazardous waste disposal. If applicable, use an inert gas or liquid to purge the chemical residues. In some cases, the rinsate might require disposal as hazardous waste. For equipment with non-permeable surfaces, decontaminate by scrubbing with warm, soapy water. For equipment that also might contain biological contamination, follow the soapy water wash with a 1:10 bleach solution soak. Rinse the equipment after at least 10 minutes contact time with the bleach.

VII. Storage, Inventory and Identification

Stock quantities of chemical carcinogens are to be stored in designated storage areas. Post these storage areas with signs bearing the legend: CAUTION – HIGHLY TOXIC CHEMICAL (OR SELECT CARCINOGEN), Authorized Personnel Only (Figure 7.1).

Label all storage vessels containing stock quantities with the following information: CAUTION – HIGHLY TOXIC CHEMICAL (OR SELECT CARCINOGEN). You may use these smaller labels available at the EHS Safety Labels webpage.

VIII. Working Quantities

Keep quantities of highly toxic chemicals, and select carcinogens in the work area to a minimum. Quantities should not exceed the amounts normally required for use in one week. Use the label depicted in Figure 7.3 (or similar) for storage vessels containing working quantities of highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens.

Figure 7.3a Figure 7.3b

Figure 7.3 - Labels for storage vessels that contain highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens.

IX. Laboratory Transport

Place storage vessels containing highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens in an unbreakable outer container before transporting them from storage areas to laboratory work areas. Place contaminated materials to transfer from work areas to disposal areas in a closed plastic bag or other suitable impermeable and sealed primary container, and place the primary container in a durable outer container before transporting. Label the outer container with both the name of the substance and the warning from Figure 7.3.

X. Protection of Vacuum Lines

Each vacuum service, including water aspirators, must have protection via an absorbent or liquid trap and a HEPA filter to prevent entry of any highly toxic chemical or select carcinogen into the system. When using a volatile chemical, use a separate vacuum pump or other device placed in an appropriate laboratory hood.

XI. Packaging and Shipping

Package highly toxic chemicals and select carcinogens to withstand shocks, pressure changes and any other condition that could cause the leakage of contents incident to ordinary handling during transportation. Shipments must be in accordance with DOT and IATA regulations. These regulations state that you must receive specific training in order to ship a hazardous chemical legally. Contact EHS to receive this training and for guidance on shipping and labeling.

XII. Decontamination

Highly toxic chemicals and select carcinogens that have spilled out of a primary container to create a hazard must be inactivated in situ or absorbed by appropriate means for subsequent disposal. Contaminated materials require decontamination by procedures that decompose the chemical, or removal for subsequent disposal. Write these decontamination protocols into your Laboratory Safety Plan, and update the protocols as necessary. Means for assuring the adequacy of clean up are required; for instance, wipe tests or fluorescence tests.

XIII. Disposal

EHS must approve all plans for handling and ultimate disposal of contaminated wastes. You must have written procedures in the Laboratory Safety Plan, Schedule B, and you must fully describe the highly toxic and/or carcinogenic substances in your waste stream when submitting an online hazardous materials transfer form. Refer to Chapter 12: Management of Laboratory Wastes for additional guidance.

XIV. Animal Experimentation

In all circumstances, research and animal care personnel must wear a disposable jumpsuit or lab coat, shoe coverings, hair covering, gloves, and a respiratory comfort mask when entering Division of Comparative Medicine (DCM; formerly the Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine (DLAM)) animal housing facilities or procedure rooms (refer to Chapter 14: Safe Handling of Laboratory Animals). As discussed in Chapter 5, comfort masks and surgical masks are not respirators. The comfort masks and surgical masks provided in several DCM facilities do not protect you from airborne exposures; instead, they protect the lab animals from your exhalations. Personnel engaged in procedures with exposure to airborne particulates contaminated with highly toxic chemicals or select carcinogens must wear an appropriate respirator of N95 or higher protection, rather than a comfort mask or surgical mask. Refer to the Respiratory Protection section of Chapter 5: Protective Clothing and Equipment, for a description of respirator types. The use of primary containment may eliminate the need to wear a respirator.

EHS must approve the selection and use of respirators, and wearers are to participate in the UNC Respiratory Protection Program.

Do not wear masks or respirators outside of the animal room or procedure room. For tight-fitting cartridge respirators, dispose of used filters and decontaminate the respirator housing daily.

XV. Appendix 7-A: Highly Toxic Chemicals List

The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200, Appendix A, classifies chemicals as "Highly Toxic", if a chemical possess at least one of these three characteristics:

  • LD50 equal or less than 50 mg/kg (oral, albino rat)
  • LD50 equal or less than 200 mg/kg (topical for 24 hours, albino rabbit)
  • LC50 equal or less than 200 ppm, or 2 mg/L (continuous inhalation for one hour, albino rat)

This attempt to identify and list the highly toxic chemicals that one could use in a University setting should NOT be considered exhaustive, and a chemical's absence from this list does not necessarily mean that it is not highly toxic. Check the chemical's Safety Data Sheet.

Chemical Names, Alternate Names, and CAS No. Table
Chemical Name Alternate Name(s) CAS No.
Abrin Toxalbumin; Rosary Pea 1393-62-0
Acrolein 2-Propen-1-one 107-02-8
Acrylonitrile 2-Propenenitrile; Cyanoethylene 107-13-1
Actinomycin Actinomycin C; Oncostatin 1402-38-6
Actinomycin D Oncostatin K 50-76-0
Activated Factor X Factor X Activating Enzyme from Russell's Viper Venom 9002-05-5
Aflatoxin B1   1402-68-2
Aldicarb Propanal, 2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-, O- ((methylamino)carbonyl)oxime 116-06-3
Aldrin   309-00-2
Allyl iodide Iodopropene, 3- 556-56-9
Amanitine, alpha- Amatoxin, alpha- 23109-05-9
Aminopterin Aminofolic Acid, 4- 54-62-6
Aminopyridine, 3- Aminopyridine, m- 462-08-8
Aminopyridine, 4- Aminopyridine, p- 504-24-5
Amiton   78-53-5
Amiton Oxalate Tetram Monooxalate 3734-97-2
Amphetamine Sulfate, d- Benzedrine Sulfate, d- 51-63-8
Amphetamine, d- Amphetamine, (+)- 51-64-9
Antimony Hydride Stibine 7803-52-3
Antimycin A Virosin 1397-94-0
Arsenic Acid Orthoarsenic Acid 7778-39-4
Arsenic(III) Chloride Arsenic Trichloride 7784-34-1
Arsenic(III) Fluoride Arsenic Trifluoride 7784-35-2
Arsenic(III) Oxide Arsenic Trioxide; Arsenious Oxide 1327-53-3
Arsenic(III) Sulfide Arsenic Trisulfide 1303-33-9
Arsenic(V) Oxide Arsenic Pentoxide 1303-28-2
Arsenic(V) Sulfide Arsenic Pentasulfide 1303-34-0
Arsine Hydrogen Arsenide 7784-42-1
Azinphos-Methyl Guthion 86-50-0
Beryllium (powdered)   7440-41-7
Beryllium Sulfate Tetrahydrate Sulfuric acid, beryllium salt (1:1), tetrahydrate 7787-56-6
Bidrin Dipadrin; Dicrotphos 141-66-2
Bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea, N,N'- BCNU; Carmustin 154-93-8
Bis(chloromethyl) Ether BCME 542-88-1
Bis(dimethylamido)fluorophosphate Dimefox 115-26-4
Boron Tribromide Boron Bromide 10294-33-4
Boron Trichloride Boron Chloride 10294-34-5
Boron Trifluoride Boron Fluoride 7637-07-2
Botulinum Toxin B Botulinum Toxin E 93384-44-2
Bromadiolone Bromatrol 28772-56-7
Bungarotoxin, b-    
Butyronitrile Cyanopropane, 1- 109-74-0
Calcium Arsenate Arsenic Acid, Calcium Salt (2:3) 7778-44-1
Calcium Cyanide Calcid; Cyanogas 592-01-8
Capsaicin 6-Nonenamide, 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-, (E)- 404-86-4
Carbachol Chloride Doryl 51-83-2
Carbofuran Yaltox 1563-66-2
Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenylhydrazone Carbonyl Cyanide 3-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone 555-60-2
Carbophenothion Acarithion 786-19-6
Chlorfenvinphos Apachlor 470-90-6
Chlormephos S-Chloromethyl-o,o-diethylphosphorodithioate 24934-91-6
Chlorophacinone   3691-35-8
Chlorthiophos   21923-23-9
Cholecalciferol Quintox 67-97-0
Cholera Toxin   9012-63-9
Cisplatin   15663-27-1
Colchicine   64-86-8
Copper Acetoarsenite C.I. Green 21 12002-03-8
Coumaphos   56-72-4
Crimidine Crimitox 535-89-7
Cyanide   57-12-5
Cyanogen Chloride Chlorine Cyanide 506-77-4
Cyanuric Fluoride Trifluorotriazine 675-14-9
Cycloheximide Actidione 66-81-9
Cytochalasin D Zygosporin A 22144-77-0
Demecolcine Colcemid 477-30-5
Dialifor   10311-84-9
Diborane Boroethane 19287-45-7
Dibutyltin Diacetate   1067-33-0
Dichloroacetylene   7572-29-4
Dichloro-N-methyldiethylamine Hydrochloride, 2,2'- Nitrogen Mustard Hydrochloride 55-86-7
Dichlorophenylarsine Phenyl Dichloroarsine 696-28-6
Dichlorvos DDVP 62-73-7
Dieldrin   60-57-1
Diethyl 4-Nitrophenol Phosphate Ethyl Paraoxon 311-45-5
Diethyl Chlorophosphate   814-49-3
Digitoxin   71-63-6
Digoxigenin   1672-46-4
Digoxin   20830-75-5
Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate Isopropyl Phosphorofluoridate 55-91-4
Dimethyl Sulfate Methyl Sulfate 77-78-1
Dimethylmercury Methyl Mercury 593-74-8
Dimetilan   644-64-4
Dinitrobutylphenol DNBP; 2-sec-butyl-4,6-Dinitrophenol 88-85-7
Dinitro-o-Cresol, 4,6-   534-52-1
Dinitrophenol, 2,4- Aldifen; DNP, 2,4- 51-28-5
Dioxathion   78-34-2
Diphtheria Toxin    
Disulfoton   298-04-4
Di-tert-butyl Dicarbonate BOC-Anhydride 24424-99-5
Dithiobiuret, 2,4- DTB 541-53-7
Doxorubicin (Free Base) Adriamycin (Free Base) 23214-92-8
Emetine Dihydrochloride   316-42-7
Endosulfan Sulfate   1031-07-8
Endothion   2778-04-3
Endrin Hexadrin 72-20-8
Ergocalciferol Vitamin D2 50-14-6
Ergosterol Provitamin D2 57-87-4
ERL 4221 Chissonox 221 monomer 2386-87-0
Ethion   563-12-2
Ethoprophos Ethoprop 13194-48-4
Ethylene Fluorohydrin Fluoroethanol, 2- 371-62-0
Ethyleneimine Aziridine 151-56-4
Ethylmercuric Phosphate   2235-25-8
Ethyl-p-nitrophenylbenzenethiophosphate EPN 2104-64-5
Etorphine Immobilon 14521-96-1
Fenamiphos   22224-92-6
Fensulfothion Dasanit 115-90-2
Fluenetil   4301-50-2
Fluoride ion   16984-48-8
Fluorine   7782-41-4
Fluoroacetamide   640-19-7
Fluoroacetic Acid   144-49-0
Fonofos   944-22-9
Formaldehyde (gas) Methyl Aldehyde 50-00-0
Formaldehyde Cyanohydrin Glycolonitrile 107-16-4
Formetanate Hydrochloride   23422-53-9
Formparanate   17702-57-7
Gitoxin   4562-36-1
Heptachlor   76-44-8
Heptachlor Epoxide   1024-57-3
Hexaethyl Tetraphosphate   757-58-4
Hydrazine   302-01-2
Hydrogen Cyanide Hydrocyanic Acid 74-90-8
Hydrogen Selenide Selenium Hydride 7783-07.5
Hygromycin B Antihelmucin 31282-04-9
Iron Pentacarbonyl   13463-40-6
Isobenzan Telodrin 297-78-9
Isobutyronitrile Isopropyl Cyanide 78-82-0
Isocyanatoethyl Methacrylate, 2-   30674-80-7
Isodrin   465-73-6
Lactonitrile   78-97-7
Lannate Methomyl 16752-77-5
Leptophos   21609-90-5
Lewisite   541-25-3
Malonitrile Malononitrile 109-77-3
Mephosfolan   950-10-7
Mercaptofos Demeton 8065-48-3
Mercury(II) Acetate Mercuric Acetate 1600-27-7
Mercury(II) Bromide Mercuric Bromide 7789-47-1
Mercury(II) Chloride Mercuric Chloride 7487-94-7
Mercury(II) Cyanide Mercuric Cyanide 592-04-1
Mercury(II) Iodide Mercuric Iodide 7774-29-0
Mercury(II) Nitrate Mercuric Nitrate 10045-94-0
Mercury(II) Oxide Mercuric Oxide 21908-53-2
Mercury(II) Thiocyanate Mercuric Sulfocyanate 592-85-8
Methacrolein Diacetate   10476-95-6
Methamidophos   10265-92-6
Methanesulfonyl Fluoride Mesyl Fluoride; Fumette 558-25-8
Methidathion Supracide 950-37-8
Methiocarb Mecaptodimethur 2032-65-7
Methoxyethylmercuric Acetate   151-38-2
Methoxyethylmercuric Chloride   123-88-6
Methoxyflurane Metofane; Penthrane 76-38-0
Methyl Chloroformate Methyl Chlorocarbonate 79-22-1
Methyl Fluoroacetate Fluoroacetic Acid, Methyl Ester 453-18-9
Methyl Isocyanate   624-83-9
Methyl Lactonitrile, 2- Acetone Cyanohydrin 75-86-5
Methyl Phosphonic Dichloride   676-97-1
Methylaziridine, 2- Propyleneimine 75-55-8
Methylhydrazine   60-34-4
Mevinphos Phosdrin 7786-34-7
Mexacarbate   315-18-4
Mitomycin C Ametycin 50-07-7
Monensin Sodium Coban 22373-78-0
Monochrotophos   6923-22-4
Muscimol Pantherin; Aminomethyl-3-isoxyzole, 5- 2763-96-4
Mustard Gas Bis(2-Chloroethyl)sulfide 505-60-2
Naphthylthiourea, alpha- ANTU 86-88-4
Nickel Carbonyl Nickel Tetracarbonyl 13463-39-3
Nickel Cyanide Dicyanonickel 557-19-7
Nicotine   54-11-5
Nicotine Sulfate   65-30-5
Nitric Acid (Red Fuming)   7697-37-2
Nitric Oxide Nitrogen Monoxide 10102-43-9
Nitrobenzonitrile, p-   619-72-7
Nitrogen Dioxide   10102-44-0
Nitrogen Mustard Dichloro-N-methyldiethylamine, 2,2'- 51-75-2
Nitrogen Tetroxide   10544-72-6
Nitrosodimethylamine, N- Dimethylnitrosamine 62-75-9
Nitrosomethylvinylamine, N-   4549-40-0
Norbormide   991-42-4
Ochratoxin A   303-47-9
Octamethyldiphosphoramide Octamethylpyrophosphoramide 152-16-9
Osmium Tetroxide   20816-12-0
Ouabain Acocantherin 630-60-4
Oxamyl   23135-22-0
Oxidiphenoxarsine, 10,10'- Vinadine 58-36-6
Oxotremorine   70-22-4
Oxygen Difluoride Fluorine Oxide; Oxygen Fluoride 7783-41-7
Parathion Phosphostigmine 56-38-2
Parathion-Methyl Methyl Parathione; Metaphor 298-00-0
Pentaborane(9) Nonahydropentaborane 19624-22-7
Pentachlorophenol   87-86-5
Phalloidin Phalloidon from Amanita Phalloides 17466-45-4
Phenyl Mercaptan Thiophenol; Benzenethiol 108-98-5
Phenylmercuric Acetate Phenylmercury Acetate 62-38-4
Phenylmercuric Triethanolamine Lactate   23319-66-6
Phenylphosphine   638-21-1
Phenylsilatrane   2097-19-0
Phenylthiocarbamide Phenyl-2-Thiourea, 1- 103-85-5
Phorate   298-02-2
Phosacetim   4104-14-7
Phosfolan   947-02-4
Phosgene Carbonyl Chloride 75-44-5
Phosphamidon   13171-21-6
Phosphine Hydrogen Phosphide 7803-51-2
Phosphonothioic Acid, Methyl-, o-(4-nitrophenyl)o-phenyl Ester Colep 2665-30-7
Phosphorus Oxychloride Phosphoryl Chloride 10025-87-3
Phosphorus Trichloride Phosphorous Chloride 7719-12-2
Phosphorus, Yellow Phosphorus, White 7723-14-0
Physostigmine Eserine 57-47-6
Physostigmine Salicylate Eserine Salicylate 57-64-7
Physostigmine Sulfate Eserine Sulfate 64-47-1
Picrotoxin Cocculin 124-87-8
Potassium Arsenite Arsenenous Acid, Potassium Salt 10124-50-2
Potassium Azide   20762-60-1
Potassium Cyanide   151-50-8
Potassium Silver Cyanide Silver Potassium Cyanide 506-61-6
Promecarb   2631-37-0
Propanenitrile Propionitrile; Ethyl Cyanide 107-12-0
Propargyl Alcohol   107-19-7
Propiolactone, beta- Propiolactone, 1,3- 57-57-8
Puromycin Achromycin 53-79-2
Ricin   9009-86-3
Sarin Isopropylmethanefluorophosphonate 107-44-8
Selenium Dioxide Selenium(IV) Dioxide 7446-08-4
Sodium Arsenate Arsenic Acid, Sodium Salt 7631-89-2
Sodium Azide   26628-22-8
Sodium Cyanide   143-33-9
Sodium Dichromate   10588-01-9
Sodium Fluoroacetate Fluoroacetic Acid, Sodium Salt 62-74-8
Sodium Meta Arsenite   7784-46-5
Sodium Selenate Selenic Acid, Disodium Salt 13410-01-0
Sodium Selenite Selenious Acid, Disodium Salt 10102-18-8
Streptonigrin Bruneomycin 3930-19-6
Strychnine   57-24-9
Strychnine Sulfate Vampirol 60-41-3
Sulfur Pentafluoride Sulfur Decafluoride 5714-22-7
Sulfur Tetrafluoride   7783-60-0
Tabun   77-81-6
Tellurium Hexafluoride   7783-80-4
Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin, 2,3,7,8- TCDD, 2,3,7,8-; Dioxine 1746-01-6
Tetraethyl Dithiopyrophosphate Sulfotep; TEDP 3689-24-5
Tetraethyl Lead Tetraethyl Plumbane 78-00-2
Tetraethyl Pyrophosphate Vapatone 107-49-3
Tetraethyltin Tetraethyl Stannate 597-64-8
Tetrodotoxin Tetrodotoxin Citrate 4368-28-9
Thallium Malonate Thallous Malonate 2757-18-8
Thallium Sulfate   10031-59-1
Thallium(I) Acetate Thallous Acetate 563-68-8
Thallium(I) Carbonate Thallous Carbonate 6533-73-9
Thallium(I) Chloride Thallous Chloride 7791-12-0
Thallium(I) Nitrate Thallous Nitrate 10102-45-1
Thallium(I) Sulfate Thallous Sulfate 7446-18-6
Thallium(III) Oxide Thallic Oxide 1314-32-5
Thiocarbazide Thiocarbohydrazide - TCH 2231-57-4
Thiodan Endosulfan 115-29-7
Thiofanox Dacamox 39196-18-4
Thionazin   297-97-2
Thiosemicarbazide Thiocarbamylhydrazine 79-19-6
Tirpate 2,4-Dimethyl-1,3-dithiolane-2-carboxaldehyde O- (methylcarbamoyl)oxime 26419-73-8
Toluene Diisocyanate Methyl-m-phenylene Diisocyanate 26471-62-5
Toluene-2,4-Diisocyanate   584-84-9
Toxaphene Camphechlor 8001-35-2
Triamiphos   1031-47-6
Tricarbonylmethylcyclopentadienyl Manganese   12108-13-3
Trichloronate Agrisil; Phytosol 327-98-0
Trimethylopropane Phosphite   824-11-3
Trimethyltin Chloride Chlorotrimethylstannate 1066-45-1
Triphenyltin Hydroxide   76-87-9
Tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine Sulfide Thiotepa 52-24-4
Tris(2-chloroethyl)amine   555-77-1
Tubocurarine Tubocurarine Hydrochloride 57-94-3
Tungsten Hexafluoride Tungsten(VI) Fluoride 7783-82-6
Uracil Mustard 5-(Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-amino)-uracil 66-75-1
Valinomycin, (+)- Valinomicin 2001-95-8
Vanadium(V) Oxide Vanadium Pentoxide 1314-62-1
Warfarin   81-81-2
Warfarin Sodium Sodium Coumadin 129-06-6
Yohimbine Hydrochloride   65-19-0
Zinc Phosphide   1314-84-7
Zinc Silicofluoride Zinc Fluorosilicate 16871-71-9

XVI. Appendix 7-B: Select Carcinogens List

The OSHA Laboratory Standard 29 CFR 1910.1450 defines select carcinogens as those chemicals that are:

  • regulated by OSHA as carcinogens;
  • listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) as "known to be carcinogens" (data taken from biennial Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition, 2005);
  • listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monographs (IARC-2006) in Group 1 (carcinogenic to humans);
  • listed by NTP as reasonably anticipated to be carcinogens (taken from RoC, 2005) or by IARC (2006) in Group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans) or in Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and causes statistically significant tumor incidence in experimental animals.

The following is a combined list of chemicals carcinogens from OSHA, NTP, and IARC.

Substance

  • Acetaldehyde
  • Acetamide
  • Acetylaminofluorene, 2-
  • Acrylamide
  • Acrylonitrile
  • Adriamycin (doxorubicin hydrochloride) Aflatoxins
  • Aflatoxin M1
  • Alcoholic beverages (consumption)
  • Alpha-Chlorinated toluenes
  • Aluminium production
  • Amino-2,4-dibromoanthraquinone, 1-
  • Amino-2-methylanthraquinone, 1-
  • Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, 2-
  • Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-beta]indole), A-alpha-C(2-
  • Aminoanthraquinone, 2-
  • Aminoazobenzene, para-
  • Aminoazotoluene, ortho-
  • Aminobiphenyl, 4- Amitrole
  • Amsacrine
  • Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin
  • Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
  • Anisidine, ortho-
  • Antimony trioxide
  • Aramite
  • Areca nut
  • Aristolochia genus herbal remedies
  • Arsenic and arsenic compounds
  • Asbestos
  • Attapulgite (palygorskite), long fibers >5mm
  • Auramine, technical-grade
  • Azacitidine
  • Azaserine
  • Azathioprine
  • Aziridine
  • Benz(a)anthracene
  • Benzene
  • Benzidine
  • Benzidine-based dyes (technical grade) (Direct Black 38, Direct Blue 6, Direct Brown 95)
  • Benzo(a)pyrene
  • Benzo(b)fluoranthene
  • Benzo(j)fluoranthene
  • Benzo(k)fluoranthene
  • Benzofuran
  • Benzotrichloride
  • Benzyl violet 4B
  • Beryllium and beryllium compounds
  • Betel quid with tobacco
  • Betel quid without tobacco
  • Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine(Chlornaphazine), N,N- Bis(chloromethyl)ether
  • Bis(bromomethyl)propane-1,3-diol, 2,2-
  • Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
  • Bis(chloromethyl) ether
  • Bitumens, extracts of steam-refined and air-refined
  • Bleomycins
  • Bracken fern
  • Bromodichloromethane
  • Butadiene, 1,3-
  • Butanediol dimethanesulphonate (myleran), 1,4-
  • Butanediol dimethylsulfonate (myleran), 1,4-
  • Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)
  • Butyrolactone, beta-
  • C.I. Basic Red 9 monohydrochloride
  • Cadmium and certain cadmium compounds
  • Caffeic acid
  • Captafol
  • Carbon black extract
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Carrageenan, degraded
  • Catechol
  • Ceramic fibers (respirable size)
  • Chlorambucil
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Chlordane
  • Chlordecone (kepone)
  • Chlorendic acid
  • Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, 3-
  • Chloroaniline, para-
  • Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU), 1-(2-
  • Chloroethyl)-3-4-methylcyclohexyl-1 nitrosourea, 1-(2-
  • Chlorinated paraffins (C12, 60% Chlorine)
  • Chlorinated toluenes, alpha- (not necessarily all in group)
  • Chlornaphazine
  • Chloro-2-methylpropene, 1-
  • Chloro-2-methylpropene, 3-
  • Chloro-o-phenylenediamine, 4-
  • Chloro-ortho-toluidine, para-
  • Chloroform
  • Chloromethyl ether
  • Chloromethyl methyl ether (technical grade)
  • Chlorophenols and their sodium salts
  • Chlorophenoxy herbicides
  • Chloroprene
  • Chlorothalonil
  • Chlorozotocin
  • Chromium compounds, hexavalent
  • CI Acid Red 114
  • CI Basic Red 9
  • CI Direct Blue 15
  • Cisplatin
  • Citrus Red No. 2
  • Clonorchis sinensis (Oriental liver fluke)
  • Coal tar pitches
  • Coal tars
  • Cobalt and cobalt compounds
  • Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide
  • Cobalt metal without tungsten carbide
  • Cobalt(II) sulfate and other soluble cobalt(II) salts
  • Coffee (bladder)
  • Conjugated estrogens
  • Creosotes
  • Cresidine, para-
  • Cupferron
  • Cycasin
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cyclosporin A
  • Dacarbazine
  • Danthron (1,8-dihydroxyanthraquinone)
  • Daunomycin
  • DDT
  • Diacetylbenzidine, N,N'-
  • Diaminoanisole, 2,4-
  • Diaminoanisole sulfate, 2,4-
  • Diaminodiphenyl ether, 4,4'
  • Diaminotoluene, 2,4-
  • Diazoaminobenzene
  • Dibenz(a,h)acridine
  • Dibenz(a,h)anthracene
  • Dibenz(a,j)acridine
  • Dibenzo(a,e)pyrene
  • Dibenzo(a,h)pyrene
  • Dibenzo(a,i)pyrene
  • Dibenzo(a,l)pyrene
  • Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole, 7H-
  • Dibromo-3-chloropropane, 1,2-
  • Dibromoethane (EDB), 1,2-
  • Dibromopropan-1-ol, 2,3-
  • Dichloroacetic acid
  • Dichlorobenzene, para-
  • Dichlorobenzene, 1,4-
  • Dichlorobenzidine, 3,3'-
  • Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether, 3,3'-
  • Dichloroethane, 1,2-
  • Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
  • Dichloropropene (technical grade), 1,3-
  • Dichlorvos
  • Diepoxybutane
  • Diesel engine exhaust
  • Diesel fuel (marine)
  • Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
  • Diethyl sulphate
  • Diethylhydrazine, 1,2-
  • Diethylstilbestrol
  • Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
  • Dihydrosafrole
  • Diisopropyl sulfate
  • Dimethoxybenzidine, 3,3'-
  • Dimethoxybenzidine (ortho-dianisidine), 3,3'
  • Dimethyl sulphate
  • Dimethylaminoazobenzene, para
  • [(Dimethylamino) methylamino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-, trans-2-
  • Dimethylaniline, 2,6- (2,6-xylidene)
  • Dimethylbenzidine, 3,3'-
  • Dimethylbenzidine (ortho-toluidine), 3,3'-
  • Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride
  • Dimethylhydrazine, 1,1-
  • Dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-
  • Dimethylvinyl chloride
  • Dinitrofluoroanthrene, 3,7-
  • Dinitrofluoroanthrene, 3,9-
  • Dinitropyrene, 1,6-
  • Dinitropyrene, 1,8-
  • Dinitrotoluene, 2,4-
  • Dinitrotoluene, 2,6-
  • Dioctyl phthalate [Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate]
  • Dioxane, 1,4-
  • Direct Black 38
  • Direct Blue 6
  • Direct Brown 95
  • Disperse Blue 1
  • Epichlorohydrin
  • Epoxybutane, 1,2-
  • Epstein-Barr virus
  • ErioniteEstrogens (not conjugated): estradiol-17
  • Estrogens (not conjugated): estrone
  • Estrogens (not conjugated): mestranol
  • Estrogens (not conjugated): ethinylestradiol
  • Ethylbenzene
  • Ethyl acrylate
  • Ethyl methanesulphonate
  • Ethyl-N-nitrosourea, N-
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Ethylene thiourea
  • Ethylene dibromide
  • Ethyleneimine
  • Etoposide
  • Etoposide in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin
  • Formaldehyde
  • Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)thiazole, 2-(2-
  • Fuel oils (residual, heavy)
  • Furan
  • Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide], AF-2[2-
  • Fusarium moniliform (toxins derived from) (Fumonisin B1, Fumonisin B2, Fusarin C)
  • Gallium arsenide
  • Gamma radiation (ionizing radiation)
  • Gasoline
  • Gasoline engine exhausts
  • Glasswool (respirable size)
  • Glu-P-1 (2-amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole)
  • Glu-P-2(2-aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole)
  • Glycidaldehyde
  • Glycidol
  • Griseofulvin
  • HC Blue No 1
  • Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
  • Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with)
  • Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with)
  • Heptachlor
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Hexachlorocyclohexanes
  • Hexachloroethane
  • Hexamethylphosphoramide
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (infection with)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (infection with)
  • Human papilloma virus type 16
  • Human papilloma virus type 18
  • Human papilloma virus type 31
  • Human papilloma virus type 33
  • Human papilloma virus: some types other than 16, 18, 31, and 33
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I
  • Hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate
  • Hydrazobenzene
  • Hydroxyanthroquinone, 1-
  • Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
  • Indium phosphide
  • Involuntary smoking
  • IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)
  • Iron-dextran complex
  • Isoprene
  • Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8
  • Kepone (chlordecone)
  • Lasiocarpine
  • Lead
  • Lead acetate and lead phosphate
  • Lead compounds, inorganic
  • Lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexane isomers
  • Magenta (containing CI Basic Red 9)
  • Magnetic fields (extremely low frequency)
  • Man-made mineral fibers (glasswool, rockwool, slagwool, and ceramic fibers), respirable size
  • Mate drinking (hot)
  • MeA-alpha-C(2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)
  • MeIQ (2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinolone)
  • MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylamidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline)
  • Medroxyprogesterone acetate
  • Melphalan Merphalan
  • Methoxsalen with ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA)
  • Methoxypsoralen, 8- plus ultraviolet radiation
  • Methoxypsoralen, 5-
  • Methyl mercury compounds (methylmercuric chloride)
  • Methyl methanesulphonate
  • Methyl chloromethyl ether
  • Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone (uncertain purity), 2-
  • Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, N- (MNNG)
  • Methyl-N-nitrosourethane, N-
  • Methyl-N-nitrosourea, N-
  • Methylaziridine (propyleneimine), 2-
  • Methylazoxymethanol and its acetate
  • Methylchrysene, 5-
  • Methylene bis(2-methylaniline), 4,4'-
  • Methylenebis (N,N-dimethyl)benzenamine, 4,4'-
  • Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA), 4,4'-
  • Methylene chloride (dichloromethane)
  • Methylenedianiline, 4,4'- and its dihydrochloride
  • Methyleugenol
  • Methylthiouracil
  • Metronidazole
  • Michler's Ketone
  • Mineral oils - untreated and mildly treated oils
  • Mirex
  • Mitoxantrone
  • Mitomycin C
  • Monocrotaline
  • MOPP and other combined chemotherapy for cancer
  • Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2- oxazolidinone, 5-(
  • Mustard gas (sulphur mustard)
  • Nafenopin
  • Naphthalene
  • Naphthalamine, alpha-
  • Naphthylamine, beta-
  • Neutrons (ionizing radiation)
  • Nickel and certain nickel compounds
  • Niridazole
  • Nitrilotriacetic acid and its salts
  • Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide, N-[4-(5-
  • Nitroacenaphthene, 5-
  • Nitroanisole, 2-
  • Nitrobenzene
  • Nitrobiphenyl, 4-
  • Nitrochrysene, 6-
  • Nitrofen
  • Nitrofluorene, 2-
  • Nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-imidazolidinone, 1-[(5-
  • Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl] acetamide, N-[4-(5-
  • Nitrogen mustard N-oxide
  • Nitrogen mustard hydrochloride
  • Nitrogen mustard
  • Nitrolotriacetic acid and its salts
  • Nitromethane
  • Nitropropane, 2-
  • Nitropyrene, 1-
  • Nitropyrene, 4-
  • Nitroso-N-ethylurea, N-
  • Nitroso-N-methylurea, N-
  • Nitrosodi-n-butylamine, N-
  • Nitrosodi-n-propylamine, N-
  • Nitrosodiethanolamine, N-
  • Nitrosodiethylamine, N-
  • Nitrosodimethylamine, N-
  • Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile, 3-(N-
  • Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), 4-(N-
  • Nitrosomethylethylamine, N-
  • Nitrosomethylvinylamine, N-
  • Nitrosomorpholine, N-
  • Nitrosonornicotine, N- (NNN)
  • Nitrosopiperidine, N-
  • Nitrosopyrrolidine, N-
  • Nitrososarcosine, N-
  • Norethisterone
  • Ocratoxin A
  • Oestrogen-progestogen therapy, postmenopausal
  • Oestrogens, nonsteroidal*
  • Oestrogens, steroidal*
  • Oil Orange SS
  • Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with)
  • Oral contraceptives, sequential or combined
  • Oxazepam
  • Oxydianiline, 4,4'-
  • Oxymetholone
  • Panfuran S (containing dihydroxymethylfuratrizine)
  • Phenacetin
  • Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
  • Phenobarbital
  • Phenolphthalein
  • Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
  • Phenyl glycidyl ether
  • Phenytoin
  • PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine)
  • Phosphorus-32 (32P), as phosphate
  • Pickled vegetables, traditional Asian
  • Plutonium-239 (239Pu) and its decay products, as aerosols
  • Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs)
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Ponceau MX
  • Ponceau 3R
  • Potassium bromate
  • Procarbazine hydrochloride
  • Progesterone
  • Progestins
  • Propane sultone -propiolactone, 1,3-
  • Propane sultone, 1,3-
  • Propiolactone, beta-
  • Propylene oxide
  • Propylthiouracil
  • Radionuclides,and particle emitting, internally deposited
  • Radium-224 (224Ra) and its decay products
  • Radium-226 (226Ra) and its decay products
  • Radium-228 (228Ra) and its decay products
  • Radon-222 (222Rn) and its decay products
  • Refractory ceramic fibers
  • Reserpine Riddelliine Safrole
  • Salted fish, Chinese style
  • Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)
  • Schistosoma japonicum (infection with)
  • Selenium sulfide
  • Shale oils
  • Silica (crystalline)
  • Sodium ortho-phenylphenate
  • Solar radiation
  • Soots
  • Sterigmatocystin
  • Streptozotocin
  • Styrene
  • Styrene oxide (styrene-7,8-oxide)
  • Sulfallate
  • Sulphuric acid (occupational exposures to strong inorganic acid mists)
  • Sunlamps and sunbeds (use of)
  • Talc containing asbestiform fibers
  • Tamoxifen
  • Tenopiside
  • Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,7,8-
  • Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)
  • Tetrafluoroethylene
  • Tetranitromethane
  • Thioacetamide
  • Thiodianiline, 4,4'-
  • Thiotepa [tris(1-aziridinyl)phosphine sulfide]
  • Thiouracil
  • Thiourea
  • Thorium dioxide
  • Thorium-232 (232Th) and its decay products
  • Tobacco products (smokeless)
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Toluene diisocyanates
  • Toluidine, ortho- (3,3-Dimethylbenzidine)
  • Toluidine hydrochloride, ortho-
  • Toxaphene (polychlorinated camphenes)
  • trans-2[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]- Treosulphan
  • Treosulphan
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Trichlormethine (trimustine hydrochloride)
  • Trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-
  • Trichloropropane, 1,2,3-
  • Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate
  • Trp-P-1 (3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)
  • Trp-P-2(3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole)
  • Trypan blue
  • Ultraviolet radiation: A, B, and C including sunlamps and sunbeds
  • Uracil mustard
  • Urethane
  • Vanadium pentoxide
  • Vinyl acetate
  • Vinyl bromide
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Vinyl fluoride
  • Vinylcyclohexene, 4-
  • Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide, 4-
  • Welding fumes
  • Wood dust
  • X-radiation (ionizing radiation)
  • Zalcitabine
  • Zidovudine (AZT, retrovir)

Occupational exposures associated with a technological process known to be carcinogenic:

  • Boot and shoe manufacture and repair
  • Carpentry and joinery
  • Coal gasification
  • Coke oven emissions
  • Coke production
  • Dry cleaning
  • Furniture and cabinet making
  • Glass manufacturing industry (occupational exposure)
  • Art glass, glass containers and pressed ware
  • Hairdresser or barber (occupational exposure to dyes)
  • Insecticide use (occupational)
  • Iron and steel founding
  • Isopropyl alcohol manufacture (strong-acid process)
  • Magenta manufacture
  • Painter (occupational exposures)
  • Printing processes (occupational exposures)
  • Petroleum refining (occupational refining exposures)
  • Rubber industry
  • Soots, tars, and mineral oils
  • Textile manufacturing (occupational exposures)
  • Wood industries

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Article ID: 132019
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