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List of Index A: Acronyms
Resources for information, consultation, and advice on biohazard control, decontamination procedures, and other aspects of laboratory and animal safety management
The NIH locus for oversight of recombinant DNA research is the OBA, which is located within the Office of Science Policy, in the Office of the Director of the NIH. The OBA implements and manages the various oversight tools and information resources that NIH uses to promote the science, safety and ethics of recombinant DNA research.
Biological toxins comprise a broad range of poisons, predominantly of natural origin but increasingly accessible by modern synthetic methods, which may cause death or severe incapacitation at relatively low exposure levels.
Although risk of laboratory infection from working with cell cultures in general is low, risk increases when working with human and other primate cells, and primary cells from other mammalian species. There are reports of infection of laboratory workers handling primary rhesus monkey kidney cells, and the bloodborne pathogen risks from working with primary human cells, tissues and body fluids are widely recognized.
IPM is an important part of managing a research facility. Man pests, such as flies and cockroaches, can mechanically transmit disease pathogens and compromise the research environment. Even the presence of innocuous insects can contribute to the perception of unsanitary conditions.
The CDC and USDA have designated certain biological agents and toxins as Select Agents, because they have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal or plant health, or to animal or plant products. These materials require federal registration and approval to receive, posses, or transfer them.
An ad hoc committee of concerned vector biologists including members of the American Committee Medical Entomology, a subcommittee of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH), and other interested persons drafted the "Arthropod Containment Guidelines." The ACG provide principles of risk assessment for arthropods of public health importance.
Risk assessment and management guidelines for agriculture differ from human public health standards. Risk management for agriculture research is based on the potential economic impact of animal and plant morbidity, and mortality, and the trade implications of disease.
Biological materials require specific packaging, labeling, and documentation. Infectious materials (materials containing or expected to contain pathogens affecting humans) are regulated by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
This chapter describes basic strategies for decontaminating surfaces, items, and areas in laboratories to eliminate the possibility of transmission of infectious agents to laboratory workers, the general public, and the environment. Factors necessary for environmentally mediated infection transmission are reviewed as well as methods for sterilization and disinfection and the levels of antimicrobial activity associated with liquid chemical germicides.
This document presents information on the design, selection, function and use of BSCs, which are the primary means of containment developed for working safely with infectious microorganisms. Brief descriptions of the facility and engineering concepts for the conduct of microbiological research are also provided.
Viral vectors have become a staple of the molecular biology community. As such, it is important to understand the origins of these tools and potential implications of their use. The most commonly used viral vectors are outlined below. Included is information on virology, laboratory hazards, biological safety containment procedures, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), disinfection, and animal use procedures.
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) or prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases which affect humans and a variety of domestic and wild animal species (Tables 1 and 2).1,2 A central biochemical feature of prion diseases is the conversion of normal prion protein (PrP) to an abnormal, misfolded, pathogenic isoform designated PrPSc (named for "scrapie," the prototypic prion disease).
Seven immunologically distinct serotypes of Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) have been isolated (A, B, C1, D, E, F and G). Each BoNT holotoxin is a disulfide-bonded heterodimer composed of a zinc metallo-protease "light chain" (approximately 50 kD) and a receptor binding "heavy chain" (approximately 100 kD).